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what is test case in software testing?

By Himanshu on 12/19/2022

What is Test Case

A test case is described as a set of scenarios under which a tester decides whether or not an application is operating in accordance with the needs of the customer. Preconditions, case name, input requirements, and anticipated outcome are all included in test case design. An activity at the first level, test cases are derived from test scenarios.
It is a comprehensive document that includes all relevant inputs (both positive and negative) as well as the navigational steps required for the test execution procedure. Writing test cases is an one-time activity that can be utilised for regression testing in the future.

How to create effective Test Cases:

• Observe the scope and requirements of the project (using SRS or BRS docs)
• Pay close attention to project updates.
• Consider yourself as being the end user.
• Try to divide the application into manageable sections and become well-versed in each
  area.
• Should take the negative and positive scenarios based on the project’s requirements
• Should have a good template having the basic columns in place as following below
  columns must exist in test case template -:
    Test case ID, Test Objective, Test Steps, Expected Result, Actual Result, Status

Tester should be ensured before execution of test cases:

• Test Cases should be unique, avoid irrelevant & duplicate test cases.
• Confirm that all test cases have covered all specified requirements mentioned in the
   specification document.
• Test cases should be transparent & straight-forward. 
• Test cases must be written in a format that makes it simple for other stakeholders to
   understand and make changes as needed.
• Don't take the system's features and functions for granted.
• Simple and concise descriptions are required.
• To reduce misunderstanding during execution, test case steps should be divided into
  the smallest possible units. 

Types of Test cases:

Unit Test Cases: To ensure that each component of the software operates as planned, unit testing examines individual software modules or components. The smallest measurable component of software is called a unit. A single output frequently requires several inputs.

Integration Test cases: To examine the interactions between the various software modules, an integration test case is created. This test case's primary goal is to validate that the interfaces between various modules function properly. Usually, the testing team will design integration test cases with assistance from the development team.

Data base Test Cases: This kind of test case tries to investigate internal processes, assisting testers in understanding where the data is moving in the system. SQL queries are widely used by testing teams to create database test cases.

Functional Test Cases: This kind of testing may show if the user interface of an app interacts well with the rest of the system and its users by determining whether the intended functions of the application are successfully completed or not. Functionality tests may be run without gaining access to the application's internal structures since they are based on user stories or system requirements. The QA team often creates this test scenario.

Performance Test Cases:  Performance test cases may be used to understand how the system will function in the actual world since they have a very stringent set of success requirements. The testing team normally develops performance test cases, however due to the high number of performance tests that one system may require, they are frequently automated. 

User Interface Test Cases: This kind of test case can confirm that a particular GUI component looks, and functions as intended. Grammar and spelling mistakes, broken links, and visual flaws can all be found in user interface (UI) components that the user interacts with. To make sure an app runs consistently across several browsers, UI tests frequently need cross-browser capabilities. With some assistance from the design team, the testing team often creates these test cases.

Security Test Cases: The system restricts activities and permissions as needed to secure data, and these test cases are used to verify this. Case studies for security tests often centre on authentication and encryption and involve security-based tests like penetration testing. If there is a security team in the company, they are in charge of creating these test cases.

Regression Test Cases: This test verifies that current system functionalities have not been impacted by recent code or programme modifications. Regression testing involves picking all or part of the previously ran test cases and rerunning them to make sure the software's current functions are still working as intended.

Benefits of Creating Test Cases:
Writing test cases ensures complete test coverage across the application, which helps the testing team be ready, additionally it also has an influence on quality assurance and the user experience. Early information that can be used to improve the quality of product will be uncovered with the help of test cases.

By the help of test cases, Tester can see defects, potential improvements & things that don’t quite make sense. These issues may be fixed before the application is made available for production use. Writing test cases enables any newly hired testers to quickly become familiar with the product without specialized training. After all, test cases describe in detail how to use the product and what may be expected from certain activities. 
 

Expected Results
how to write test case
Status
Test Objective
Testcase ID
Testing
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