What is manual testing?
Manual testing is one of the most fundamental testing processes. An automated tool is not used during the manual testing process, which involves manually running test cases. According to the viewpoint of the end user, the tester manually completed all test cases. It confirms whether the application functions as specified in the requirement document. Planning and execution of test cases allows for nearly complete software application completion. Additionally, test case reports are manually created.
It can detect both visible and hidden software defects. A defect is defined as the difference between expected output and output provided by the software. The developer fixed the flaws and handed it over to the tester for retesting.
WHY DO WE NEED MANUAL TESTING
Automation tools cannot yet replicate real humans.
Even if no issues were discovered during automation testing, manual quality assurance can assist in identifying general design and usability flaws, as well as illogical navigation and client paths.
Even the most complex automated test scripts cannot detect what a human tester's eye can see from the viewpoint of a customer and grasp the issue on an emotional level.
The price of automation
Due to project deadlines or size, extended efforts for automation are not always acceptable, and we always prefer rapid manual validation over automation testing.
STAGES OF MANUAL TESTING
There are several types of manual testing:
Black box testing
Software and application testing techniques known as "black box testing" don't require the tester to be aware of the code or internal workings of the tested object. This type of testing is done to make sure a piece of software or an application operates as expected and meets the necessary criteria. It tests the system without digging into its inner workings. Black box testing allows testers to identify flaws or untested functionality through input and output.
White box testing
White box testing is a type of software testing that enables the tester to have access to the source code of the application. This access allows the tester to open the box, examine the code and look for potential issues. With white box testing, testers can quickly identify issues in various components of the system and can work to fix them as soon as possible. The goal of white box testing is to ensure that the code is written correctly and will be able to function in a variety of different conditions.
Unit testing is a sort of software testing in which individual units or components of software were tested. The goal is to ensure each unit of software code operates as planned. Unit testing is carried out by developers during the building (coding stage) of an application. Unit tests isolate and verify the accuracy of a section of code.
Unit testing is the first level of testing accomplished before testing process in Software Development Lifecycle, STLC, and V - shaped model. Unit testing is a type of WhiteBox testing that is frequently handled by the developer. In reality, therefore, because of limited time or developers' reluctance to test, Quality assurance team also perform unit testing.
Integration testing is a sort of testing in which software modules are integrated logically and assessed as a group. A typical software project consists of many software modules written by separate programmers. The goal of this level of testing is to uncover flaws in the interaction of various software components when they are combined.
System testing is an essential component of the software development process. It involves testing the entire system, frequently with an emphasis on integration and system-level testing. It is aimed to verify that all subsystems function effectively and integrate appropriately. This is to guarantee that the system as a whole is working in accordance with the user needs, as well as that it satisfies the users' performance and reliability criteria.
User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is a sort of testing conducted by the end user or customer to verify/accept the software system before it is moved to the production environment. UAT is carried out at the end of the testing process, after functional, integration, and system testing.
How to perform Manual Testing
Examine the software requirement specification paper for requirements.
• Make a detailed test plan.
• Create test cases that address all of the criteria listed in the paper.
• Recommend that the QA lead examine the test cases.
• Execute test cases and look for issues.
• Report any issues, and once repaired, re-run the failed tests to re-verify the fixes.